Protecting Iron Nails from Rust

Protecting Iron Nails from Rust

Rust is an iron oxide, a usually red oxide formed by the reaction of iron and oxygen in the presence of water or air moisture. Several forms of rust are distinguishable both visually and by spectroscopy, and form under different circumstances.

Given sufficient time, oxygen, and water, any iron mass will eventually convert entirely to rust and disintegrate. Surface rust is flaky and friable, and it provides no protection to the underlying iron, unlike the formation of patina on copper surfaces. Rusting is the common term for corrosion of iron and its alloys, such as steel. Many other metals undergo similar corrosion, but the resulting oxides are not commonly called rust.

Rust is another name for iron oxide, which occurs when iron or an alloy that contains iron, like steel, is exposed to oxygen and moisture for a long period of time. Over time, the oxygen combines with the metal at an atomic level, forming a new compound called an oxide and weakening the bonds of the metal itself. Although some people refer to rust generally as “oxidation”, that term is much more general; although rust forms when iron undergoes oxidation, not all oxidation forms rust. Only iron or alloys that contain iron can rust, but other metals can corrode in similar ways.

The main catalyst for the rusting process is water. Iron or steel structures might appear to be solid, but water molecules can penetrate the microscopic pits and cracks in any exposed metal. The hydrogen atoms present in water molecules can combine with other elements to form acids, which will eventually cause more metal to be exposed. If chloride ions are present, as is the case with saltwater, the corrosion is likely to occur more quickly. Meanwhile, the oxygen atoms combine with metallic atoms to form the destructive oxide compound. As the atoms combine, they weaken the metal, making the structure brittle and crumbly.

So here are the iron nails that I’m going to be using for the experiment.

One nail is covered in glue, the other is covered in WD-40 (if you don’t know what that is: it’s a penetrating oil and water-displacing spray). And the last one is covered in aluminum foil.

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And I put them in cups of water and waited for 24 hours.

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22 Hours Later: 

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I was really suprised that everyone one of them worked. The nail that was covered in Aluminum foil was completly dry. As you could see I used the method of stopping the water to touch the iron and it worked so well.

Dropping Paper and Copper into Acids

Dropping Paper and Copper into Acids

I was really curious about what would happen if you drop some paper and a weak metal (Copper) into strong acids. I only have 2 acids so that’s all I could do.

Hydrochloric acid:

Paper (A4 70 Grams) :

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The paper started to fizz.

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And after that, it ended and nothing happened. But the paper is mushy and soft.

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Copper:

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Nothing happened with the copper. So I waited for one hour, but still, nothing happened.

Nitric Acid:

Paper:

The same thing happened with the Hydrochloric acid…

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Copper:

The piece of copper dissolved very quickly and created this fumes which I think is called nitrogen dioxide (because of the orange vapor). And after that, there was only a green solution left in the beaker.

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I think the Hydrochloric acid is less stronger than the Nitric Acid.

Thanks for reading.

I’m sorry that this was a short post.

End of the week #3 (My exam results)

 

Alright so my midterm exam results finally came out, and I didn’t do so well.

Here are three reasons why didn’t do well: First, I wasn’t paying attention (I didn’t put effort into getting good grades). Second, I past the 8th grade many times already, and the grades are better than this. And lastly, the test is in a language I’m not comfortable with.

My parents were upset that I got these grades, but I wasn’t sad. Because I didn’t try my best (but they won’t listen to me). Anyway, let’s see the grades:

Math: D 40% (It was in Thai)

Science: C 67.5% (It was also in Thai)

Computer: D 56.67%

History: C 62.5%

Thai language: F 22.5% (There’s nothing I can do)

P.E. B 80%

English Grammar: A 95.5% (Easy)

Social Studies: C 75%


And there they are.

Plus, nothing really happened this week, except for the grades.

I would of gotten better grades if I was paying attention.

Thanks for reading.

 

Mercury Compared to Water

Mercury Compared to Water

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This is going to be a short post because I’ll be comparing Mercury to Water. I’ll be trying to find out why mercury is 14 times denser than water:

I poured all of my mercury into a petri dish and I have 22.70 grams of it. So I added the same weight of water into a petri dish and weighed it.

And after that, I pour the mercury and water into beakers to measure them.

There are 1.6 ml of mercury and 22 ml of water. That explains why mercury is 14 times denser than water (22 ÷ 1.6 = 13.75 ≈ 14).

Here are some more comparisons:

 Mercury  Water
Color  Metalic Silver  Clear/Transparent
Density  13.534 g/cm3  1 g/cm3
Conductivity  High  Medium
Toxicity  High  None

 

Pouring Super Glue into Borax 1

Pouring Super Glue into Borax 1

Everyone has heard about slime from school glue.

But I was thinking what would happen if you use superglue instead of just regular school glue.

Glue has long flexible molecules in it called polymers. These polymer molecules slide past each other as a liquid.

Borax in water forms an ion called the borate ion. When the borax solution is added to the glue solution, the borate ions help link the long polymer molecules to each other so they cannot move and flow as easily.

When enough polymer molecules get hooked together in the right way, the glue solution changes from being very liquidy to a rubbery kind of stuff that we call slime.

I was thinking what would happen if you replace superglue instead of just regular school glue.

So here I have a 2% borax solution by adding 2 grams of borax into 200ml of water:

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Now I’ll put one drop of superglue into the borax, just to see what happens.

The drop of super glue has turned into jelly. Now let’s add more:

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The same thing happened. Then I decided to take it out with forceps:

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The superglue instantly dries when it touches the air.

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After that, I decided to put a teaspoon of borax into the solution and poured more superglue.

It dried up in the solution fast. I took the chunk of superglue out to inspect it. The superglue felt like hard foam. I pinched it with my hand, there are still some superglue that hasn’t dried inside since the borax can’t touch it.

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That’s it! I think the experiment was too quick, and a little sloppy so I’ll try this experiment again and I’ll do a better one sometime later.

Also, I’m going to write a scientific report after every and each chemistry experiment. But this one is a little too short so I’m not going to write anything.

And that’s all for now!

Sources:

 

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How to make Rochelle Salt (Potassium Sodium Tartrate)

How to make Rochelle Salt (Potassium Sodium Tartrate)

Rochelle Salt (Potassium Sodium Tartrate) a crystalline solid having a large piezoelectric effect (electric charge induced on its surfaces by mechanical deformation due to pressure, twisting, or bending), making it useful in sensitive acoustical and vibrational devices. In 1824, Sir David Brewster demonstrated piezoelectric effects using Rochelle salts, which led to him naming the effect pyroelectricity.

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Materials + Methods:

Materials + Methods that I used:

  • 2 50ml beakers
  • alcohol lamp and stand
  • Glass stir rod
  • Funnel
  • Filter paper or coffee filter
  • 5 g Potassium bitartrate (also known as cream of tartar)
  • Sodium carbonate (also known as washing soda)
  1. Fill the 50 ml beaker 5 ml with water. Add 5 grams of potassium bitartrate one at a time, and stir.
  2. Using the alcohol lamp, heat just until it boils, stirring constantly.
  3. Remove the beaker from heat and turn off the lamp.
  4. Add heaping scoops of sodium carbonate, stirring in between. The solution will fizz. Repeat until no more bubbles form upon addition of sodium carbonate and the solution is clear.
  5. With a hot pad and an adult’s help, pour the hot solution into the 250 ml beaker. Use a filter-paper-lined funnel. This step takes some time. If the solution begins to cool and crystals form and clog the filter paper, simply reheat the solution and pour again.
  6. Place it in the refrigerator, uncovered. Within a few hours, crystalline Rochelle salt (potassium sodium tartrate) will have begun to form. Leave it overnight.
  7. The next day, carefully pour off the remaining solution and use a spatula to transfer the Rochelle salt onto filter paper to dry so you can examine it.

Original Method:

  1. Fill the 600 ml beaker to the first line (~25 ml) with water. Add 10 heaping scoops of potassium bitartrate one at a time, and stir.
  2. Using the alcohol lamp, heat just until it boils, stirring constantly.
  3. Use a hot pad and adult’s help to remove the beaker from heat and turn off the lamp.
  4. Add heaping scoops of sodium carbonate, stirring in between. The solution will fizz. Repeat until no more bubbles form upon addition of sodium carbonate and the solution is clear.
  5. With a hot pad and an adult’s help, pour the hot solution into the 250 ml beaker. Use a filter-paper-lined funnel. This step takes some time. If the solution begins to cool and crystals form and clog the filter paper, simply reheat the solution and pour again.
  6. Place it in the refrigerator, uncovered. Within a few hours, crystalline Rochelle salt (potassium sodium tartrate) will have begun to form. Leave it overnight.
  7. The next day, carefully pour off the remaining solution and use a spatula to transfer the Rochelle salt onto filter paper to dry so you can examine it.

Results:

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The salt white, but if you want to make the crystal, it’ll a lot harder. My solution is not water clear, I still have impurities, it also may appear a little strange since it has a higher refractive index and is light polarizing. To purify further: simply grow the crystals again with another salt solution. I agree with myself that this experiment is hard.

Sources:

Methods: https://learning-center.homesciencetools.com/article/how-to-make-rochelle-salt-science-project/

https://www.britannica.com/science/Rochelle-salt

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potassium_sodium_tartrate

https://mistralhowto.wordpress.com/tag/uses-for-rochelle-salt/

Methods: http://www.instructables.com/id/Make-Rochelle-Salt/

4 Science Books you Should Buy

4 Science Books you Should Buy

Want to be an expert in doing science experiments? Want to study science? Then these are the science books you should take a look at. I use these books a lot and they’re very very helpful. So let’s get started.

4. Illustrated Guide to Home Biology Experiments: All Lab, No Lecture

Want to be an expert in using a microscope? Then this one is for you! It’s mostly about microscopes, but there’re some other things in there.20170829_13590520170829_13591420170829_135934

PDF: http://www.thehomescientist.com/manuals/Illustrated_Guide_to_Home_Biology_Experiments.pdf

3. The Annotated Build-It-Yourself Science Laboratory: Build Over 200 Pieces of Science Equipment! (Make)

Want to start a home laboratory from scratch? Wanna make DIY science equipment?Then this one is for you. Build every science equipment! Build: a carbon arc furnace, cloud chamber, mechanical stroboscope, microtome, and so many others! This book was originally published in 1963!! It’s awesome, believe me!20170829_13562520170829_13565620170829_141919

Don’t want to buy the book? Download the PDF: http://www.ebook777.com/make-annotated-build-science-laboratory/

2. Illustrated Guide to Home Chemistry Experiments: All Lab, No Lecture (DIY Science)

Want to be an expert in using chemistry equipment? Trust me you’ll turn into an expert after you read the whole book! This book has: a guide on setting up a home laboratory, experiments you can try, and scientific principles.

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PDF: https://zookeepersblog.files.wordpress.com/2016/03/illustrated-guide-to-home-chemistry-experiments.pdf

1. The Science Book: Everything You Need to Know About the World and How It Works

This is the best. You don’t the internet to find something if you have this book.

This book has everything you need to know, about the world, about everything! If you knew everything in the book, you’re a genius. There is so much to learn in the book. It has everything about science. It’ll take me forever to learn everything in this book! Trust me, if you want to know about the world, then this is for you.

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You need this: https://fy45g7645f5uggu45.files.wordpress.com/2017/07/the-science-book-everything-you-need-to-know-about-the-world-and-how-it-works.pdf

Hope you enjoyed the post and Do you think these books are good? Let me know in the comments↓↓

How to get rid of flies in your house

From Indianes Kitchen.

Go visit the link on the bottom of this post. It will tell you how.

Don’t you hate that time of the year when the Fruit Flies invade your kitchen? Landing on your food is disgusting! It seems like they are everywhere and you can’t get rid of them! You won’t get rid of them completely unless you throw out your ripe produce or put the ripe produce in the […]

Visit the full post here:

Fruit Fly Solution — In Dianes Kitchen

Playing With Black Light

Playing With Black Light

I was just looking around the internet for some cool stuff, and I found something that catches my eye. I found black light.

A blacklight (or often black light), also referred to as a UV-A light, Wood’s lamp, or simply ultraviolet light, is a lamp that emits long-wave (UV-Aultraviolet light and not much visible light.

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Black light fluorescent tubes. The violet glow of a black light is not the UV light itself, which is not visible to the human eye, but visible light that escapes being filtered out by the filter material in the glass envelope.

 

One type of lamp has a violet filter material, either on the bulb or in a separate glass filter in the lamp housing, which blocks most visible light and allows through UV, so the lamp has a dim violet glow when operating. Blacklight lamps which have this filter have a lighting industry designation that includes the letters “BLB”. This stands for “blacklight blue”, which is a contradiction in that they are the type that does not look blue.

A second type of lamp produces ultraviolet but does not have the filter material, so it produces more visible light and has a blue color when operating. These tubes are made for use in “bug zapper” insect traps, and are identified by the industry designation “BL”.

But I don’t have a blacklight. So I made my own from the internet (man! I can’t live without the internet). 20170804_15213520170804_152200

 

Let’s test it by using highlighters.

It worked!

But I found this: Wikipedia says: “Scorpions are also known to glow a vibrant blue-green when exposed to certain wavelengths of ultraviolet light such as that produced by a black light, due to the presence of fluorescent chemicals in the cuticle. One fluorescent component is now known to be beta-carboline. A hand-held UV lamp has long been a standard tool for nocturnal field surveys of these animals. Fluorescence occurs as a result of sclerotisation and increases in intensity with each successive instar. This fluorescence may have an active role in scorpion light detection.”

And I have one! Let’s try it.20170804_152439

I collected this on November 2016. It’s about 12 cm which is quite small.

I wish I have another one to show you how I pinned it.20170804_152505

Nope, it didn’t work. Maybe because the scorpion is dead or I need to use a real black light.

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The next thing I wanted to do is to put the highlighter’s ink in water and I would like to compare it with water.

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Let’s do it!20170804_192513

It didn’t work well like I thought but at least it’s glowing nicely. Let’s compare it with the water.20170804_192518

Plain water looks nice too.

Hope you enjoyed this if you did, drop a like on the bottom ↓ 😀

Sources:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blacklight

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scorpion

 

 

(DIY) How to make Ring + Stands for Test Tubes and Funnels

(DIY) How to make Ring + Stands for Test Tubes and Funnels

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I need a test tube ring and stand for this experiment, but I don’t have one. The chemical shop doesn’t have it either. I went to my laptop and looked at my online science supplier, but it’s too expensive. Then there’s only one way… Do it yourself! This is my idea. So in post, I’m going to show you step-by-step how to make ring stands for test tubes and funnels. Let’s get started!

Things you’ll need: Strong wire, a candle, lighter, scissors, forceps, and electrical tape.

 

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Some things are not in this photo.

 

1. Planning:

Of course, the first step of a project is planning. The whole stand was made by me (I designed it by myself). In this step, you just need to design your own stand.

If you want to have the exact same stand that I have, just follow the picture below.

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2. Making the base:

Make a circle with the wire and make sure to leave an end on both sides (one long one short). 20170802_173609

3. Making the circle:

Wrap the end of the circle around the longer end. Now try to stand it up, and make some changes to balance it.

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5. Making the ring:

Use the long end to make a ring. This depends on what you want to hold, and make sure it’s balanced by putting some weight on it.

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6. Wrapping the tape:

Electrical is just like rubber. You need to make the stand “not slipping around the table”. So put tape on the base and the ring. It looks messy but you’ll fix later.20170802_175812

7. Burning:

Melt the tape with a candle onto the metal. This will make the tape look cleaner and stronger.

 

8. Squeezing the tape:

While the tape is still soft, squeeze it with forceps. This will make the tape stick onto the metal.

9. Cleaning up the tape:

Use scissors to cut the excess off the tape. Mine is messy but if you put more effort into it, I’m sure that it’ll neater.20170802_180722

Finished. Test it and make sure nothing falls off the ring. Unfortunately, my wire is too short so I decided to make it a funnel holder.

This is one method of making a test tube or funnel holder, but I’m sure there’s more floating around.

Did you like my method? Feel free to comment down below ↓

How to Look at Pond Water With a Microscope

How to Look at Pond Water With a Microscope

After the microscope slide series, I wanted real specimens from nature like pond water, which is what I’m doing today, and I have a pond in my backyard. I did this several times, it will be easy, so let’s get started.

Things you’ll need: Pond water, a jar, forceps eye dropper, microscope slides, cover slips, paper, and a microscope with 40x-100x magnification.20170726_163820

  1. Collect the water using the jar. I found 2 tadpoles and 1 mosquito larva in my collected water.20170726_163959
  2. Use the eye dropper to collect a small amount of the water from the jar.
  3. Place the microscope slide that you’re using on to a piece of paper
  4. Release one drop of the water onto the microscope slide from the eye dropper. 20170726_164218
  5. Use forceps to carry the cover slip, then use it to cover the slide.  This will spread the water out into a thin layer over the slide.
  6. Place the prepared slide into the microscope. Then, activate the microscope’s light.

I looked at the water under the microscope but I don’t see anything interesting. The only thing I see: dirt, string, and dots.

So I’m not going to look at the water. I wanted to see the organisms I collected.

I sucked the mosquito larva into the eyedropper.

Mosquito Larva:

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I dropped the mosquito larva onto the slide. But I’m not going to put the cover slip on.20170726_164747

Yay! I can see it!

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Tail (40x)
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40x

Look at it! Compare it to the one from the previous posts:

I wonder what will happen if I put the cover slip on.

And it appears that I crushed it…20170726_165643

Let’s look at the tadpole:

Tadpole:20170726_165748

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40x
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Tail (40x)

 

I put the cover slip on, and the tadpole crushed.

I released the left over tadpole back into the pond :D.

Do you like microscopes? Tell me in the comment section↓

The Agar Test and Bacteria Culture

The Agar Test

I completely forgot about this exciting experiment. I did this experiment 2 years ago, but I don’t know what to call it. I will call it… The bacteria experiment. This experiment is to let you culture (grow) bacteria. But I’m not going to do that experiment today. I wanted to check my agar.

Agar is a jelly-like substance, obtained from algae. Agar is derived from the polysaccharide agarose, which forms the supporting structure in the cell walls of certain species of algae, and which is released on boiling.

Simply, agar is the bacterias’ food. Let’s look at it.20170707_190853

I used half of it. I store it in my refrigerator and hid it deep in there so nobody can see it. If my mom sees that, it will be in the garbage bin because she doesn’t like chemicals to be with food. Anyway, I’m going to check it to make sure that it works properly. Wait, what’s this?20170707_190901

Expires on September 10th 2015?

This would not work. But I hid it so well though 😂.

And store it at 2-8°C (36-46°F)? My ‘fridge is only 10°C.

This can’t work. But you know, it may work.

It’s still frozen, so I’m going to boil the whole bottle if I remember 2 years ago. I need to clean everything, even the container that it’s going to be boiled in. I don’t want it to be contaminated.

To do the test you’ll need:

Things you’ll need: 2 petri dishes, beaker, alcohol lamp, agar, gloves, towels, and Q-tips.

Warning: Make sure everything is clean.

  1. Boil the whole bottle of agar in the beaker. The agar will turn into liquid.20170708_092615
  2. Pour the agar into the petri dishes; half way.20170708_102827
  3. Use a Q-tip to collect bacteria. Rub it on dirty things (I used a shoe).
  4. Rub the Q-tip that is dirty on to one petri dish. Leave the other one alone.20170708_103632
  5. Place it in a dark place, cover it with half way a petri dish lid, and wait for 2-3 days.

If the dirty petri dish has dots on it and the other one doesn’t, your agar is fine.

If the dirty petri dish has nothing on it, the agar is bad.

But it looks like that it’s fine.20170709_182657.jpg

The clean one is one the left and the dirty is on the right.20170709_182703.jpg

The result is: my agar is fine.

 

 

Burglar Door Alarm

Burglar Door Alarm

The last time I did an alarm that’s under a mat and it received a lot of likes. The link for that is here: How to Make a Burglar Alarm Mat. So today I have another alarm to make, and it involves a door. Make sure to follow the pictures and have fun.

Things you’ll need: String, a bottle cap, 9V battery, a small box, 3 alligator wires, speaker with sound or a piezo buzzer, a paper clip, and tape.

  1. Cut a hole outside of the box.20170701_150211
  2. Cut a piece of plastic from a bottle cap.20170701_150741
  3.  Put tape on one “tong” of an alligator clip and leave the other alone as shown in the picture.20170701_151111
  4. Build a circuit in the box as shown below. Make sure the speaker is working and the alligator clip with tape needs to be next to the hole.20170701_151321
  5. Attach a string to the piece plastic from the bottle cap. Then, put the piece of plastic between the alligator clip and make the string go through the hole.
  6. Make sure you see the circuit from the hole and the string cannot be blocked or tight.
  7. Now the alarm is done. When you pull the string the speaker will be activated.
  8. The door needs to pull the string, so find a place that the door knob moves away from the alarm.20170701_151847
  9. Tape or place the box in the right position.20170701_152559
  10. Tie the string to the door knob.20170701_152701.jpg
  11. Now your alarm is ready. When someone opens the door, the door knob will pull the string, the wire will be connected to the paperclip, and the speaker will be activated.

The reason I put tape on only on “tong” of the alligator clip is because the speaker will be activated when it has the piece of plastic between the first tong. The tape and plastic is an insulator. An electrical insulator is a material whose internal electric charges do not flow freely; very little electric current will flow through it under the influence of an electric field. This contrasts with other materials, semiconductors and conductors, which conduct electric current more easily. The property that distinguishes an insulator is its resistivity; insulators have higher resistivity than semiconductors or conductors.

When the door knob pulls the plastic with the string, the metal will touch and the speaker will be activated.

 

 

 

 Is Albert Einstein’s Brain Different From us?

Today; I’m taking it to the next level (well, maybe only in this post). I’m going to do a long long post today and it’s about someone’s brain, you already saw the title so I don’t have to tell you again. But this is going to be a long one, that means if you don’t like reading you won’t like this… Anyway, I tried to make this shorter but I love reading so I really can’t make this shorter, every word is important. Enjoy the show!

Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist. He developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics). Einstein’s work is also known for its influence on the philosophy of science. Einstein is best known by the general public for his mass–energy equivalence formula E = mc2 (which has been dubbed “the world’s most famous equation”). He received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics “for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect”, a pivotal step in the evolution of quantum theory.

So my question is: is Albert Einstein’s brain different from us?

Simple answer: YES!

Skip this to Diffences

The brain of physicist Albert Einstein has been a subject of much research and speculation. Einstein’s brain was removed within seven and a half hours of his death. The brain has attracted attention because of Einstein’s reputation as one of the foremost geniuses of the 20th century, and apparent regularities or irregularities in the brain have been used to support various ideas about correlations in neuroanatomy with general or mathematical intelligence. Scientific studies have suggested that regions involved in speech and language are smaller, while regions involved with numerical and spatial processing are larger. Other studies have suggested an increased number of glial cells in Einstein’s brain.

Einstein’s autopsy was conducted in a lab at Princeton Hospital by pathologist Thomas Stoltz Harvey shortly after Einstein’s death in 1955. Harvey removed and weighed the brain at 1230g. Harvey then took the brain to a lab at the University of Pennsylvania where he dissected Einstein’s brain into several pieces; some of the pieces he kept to himself while others were given to leading pathologists. He claimed he hoped that cytoarchitectonics would reveal useful information.Einstein_brain_-_T.Harvey Harvey injected 50% formalin through the internal carotid arteries and afterward suspended the intact brain in 10% formalin. Harvey photographed the brain from many angles. He then dissected it into about 240 blocks (each about 1 cm3) and encased the segments in a plastic-like material called collodion.Harvey also removed Einstein’s eyes, and gave them to Henry Abrams, Einstein’s ophthalmologist.

Whether or not Einstein’s brain was preserved with his prior consent is a matter of dispute. Ronald Clark’s 1979 biography of Einstein states, “he had insisted that his brain should be used for research and that he be cremated”, but more recent research has suggested that this may not be true and that the brain was removed and preserved without the permission of either Einstein or his close relatives. Hans Albert Einstein, the physicist’s elder son, endorsed the removal after the event, but insisted that his father’s brain should be used only for research to be published in scientific journals of high standing.

In 1978, Einstein’s brain was rediscovered in Harvey’s possession by journalist Steven Levy. Its sections had been preserved in alcohol in two large mason jars within a cider box for over 20 years. In 2010, Harvey’s heirs transferred all of his holdings constituting the remains of Einstein’s brain to the National Museum of Health and Medicine, including 14 photographs of the whole brain (which is now in fragments) never before revealed to the public.

More recently, 46 small portions of Einstein’s brain were acquired by the Mütter Museum in Philadelphia. In 2013, these thin slices, mounted on microscope slides, went on exhibit in the museum’s permanent galleries.

Differences:

Autopsy

Harvey had reported that Einstein had no parietal operculum in either hemisphere, but this finding has been disputed. Photographs of the brain show an enlarged Sylvian fissure. In 1999, further analysis by a team at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario revealed that his parietal operculum region in the inferior frontal gyrus in the frontal lobe of the brain was vacant. Also absent was part of a bordering region called the lateral sulcus (Sylvian fissure). Researchers at McMaster University speculated that the vacancy may have enabled neurons in this part of his brain to communicate better. “This unusual brain anatomy…[missing part of the Sylvian fissure]… may explain why Einstein thought the way he did,” said Professor Sandra Witelson who led the research published in The Lancet. This study was based on photographs of the whole brain made at autopsy in 1955 by Harvey and not a direct examination of the brain. Einstein himself claimed that he thought visually rather than verbally. Professor Laurie Hall of Cambridge University, commenting on the study, said, “To say there is a definite link is one bridge too far, at the moment. So far, the case isn’t proven. But magnetic resonance and other new technologies are allowing us to start to probe those very questions.”brain

Glial cells

In the 1980s, University of California, Berkeley professor Marian Diamond received four sections of the cortical association regions of the superior prefrontal and inferior parietal lobes in the right and left hemispheres of Albert Einstein’s brain from Thomas Harvey. In 1984, Marian Diamond and her associates were the first ever to publish research on the brain of Albert Einstein. She compared the ratio of glial cells in Einstein’s brain with that of the preserved brains of 11 other males. (Glial cells provide support and nutrition in the brain, form myelin, and participate in signal transmission, and are the other integral component of the brain, besides the neurons.) Dr. Diamond’s laboratory made thin sections of Einstein’s brain, each 6 micrometers thick. They then used a microscope to count the cells. Einstein’s brain had more glial cells relative to neurons in all areas studied, but only in the left inferior parietal area was the difference statistically significant. This area is part of the association cortex, regions of the brain responsible for incorporating and synthesizing information from multiple other brain regions. A stimulating environment can increase the proportion of glial cells and the high ratio could possibly result from Einstein’s life studying stimulating scientific problems. The limitation that Diamond admits in her study is that she had only one Einstein to compare with 11 brains of normal intelligence individuals. S. S. Kantha of the Osaka Bioscience Institute criticized Diamond’s study, as did Terence Hines of Pace University. Other issues related to Diamond’s study point out glial cells continue dividing as a person ages and although Einstein’s brain was 76, it was compared to brains that averaged 64 in age (eleven male brains, 47-80 years of age). Diamond in her landmark study “On the Brain of a Scientist: Albert Einstein” noted that the 11 male individuals whose brains were used in her control base had died from nonneurologically related diseases. She also noted that “Chronological age is not necessarily a useful indicator in measuring biological systems. Environmental factors also play a strong role in modifying the conditions of the organism. One major problem in dealing with human specimens is that they do not come from controlled environments.” Additionally, there is little information regarding the samples of brains that Einstein’s brain was compared against such as IQ score, or other relevant factors. Diamond also admitted that research disproving the study was omitted. His brain is now at the Mütter Museum in Philadelphia and two of the 140 sections are on loan at the British Museum.

Scientists are currently interested in the possibility that physical differences in brain structure could determine different abilities. One part of the operculum called Broca’s area plays an important role in speech production. To compensate, the inferior parietal lobe was 15 percent wider than normal. The inferior parietal region is responsible for mathematical thought, visuospatial cognition, and imagery of movement.

Hippocampus

Dr. Dahlia Zaidel of the University of California, Los Angeles, examined two slices of Albert Einstein’s brain containing the hippocampus in 2001. The hippocampus is a subcortical brain structure that plays an important role in learning and memory. The neurons on the left side of the hippocampus were found to be significantly larger than those on the right, and when compared with normal brain slices of the same area in ordinary people, there was only minimal, inconsistent asymmetry in this area. “The larger neurons in the left hippocampus, Zaidel noted, imply that Einstein’s left brain may have had stronger nerve cell connections between the hippocampus and another part of the brain called the neocortex than his right. The neocortex is where detailed, logical, analytical and innovative thinking takes place, Zaidel noted in a prepared statement.” 

Stronger connection between brain hemispheres

A study published in the journal Brain in September 2013 analyzed Einstein’s corpus callosum – a large bundle of fibers that connects the two cerebral hemispheres and facilitates interhemispheric communication in the brain – using a novel technique that allowed for a higher resolution measurement of the fiber thickness. Einstein’s corpus callosum was compared to two sample groups: 15 brains of elderly people and 52 brains from people aged 26. Einstein was 26 in 1905, his Annus Mirabilis (Miracle Year). The findings show that Einstein had more extensive connections between certain parts of his cerebral hemispheres compared to both younger and older control group brains.

Soures:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Einstein and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Einstein%27s_brain

 

 

Is Facebook Bad for you?

Is Facebook Bad for you?

A long time ago I wanted to know that: are video games bad for you? And I made a post about it. I got a final answer on that question on that. Video games are good and bad for you. You probably read that post already. If not Click here. I recommend you to play video games one hour per day. I only play 30 min per day and like video games like other kids do. But I still like science more than video games. Anyway, we’re not talking about video games now. I wanted to know: Is facebook bad for you? Again, video games are good and bad for you. So now I wanted to know that facebook is good or bad for you. To answer this question, I’ve got to do some research and know what facebook is.

Facebook is an American for-profit corporation and an online social media and social networking service based in Menlo Park, California. The Facebook website was launched on February 4, 2004, by Mark Zuckerberg, along with fellow Harvard College students and roommates, Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz, and Chris Hughes.download

The founders had initially limited the website’s membership to Harvard students; however, later they expanded it to higher education institutions in the Boston area, the Ivy League schools, and Stanford University. Facebook gradually added support for students at various other universities, and eventually to high school students as well. Since 2006, anyone age 13 and older has been allowed to become a registered user of Facebook, though variations exist in the minimum age requirement, depending on applicable local laws. The Facebook name comes from the facebook directories often given to United States university students.

Facebook may be accessed by a large range of desktops, laptops, tablet computers, and smartphones over the Internet and mobile networks. After registering to use the site, users can create a user profile indicating their name, occupation, schools attended and so on. Users can add other users as “friends”, exchange messages, post status updates and digital photos, share digital videos and links, use various software applications (“apps”), and receive notifications when others update their profiles or make posts. Additionally, users may join common-interest user groups organized by workplace, school, hobbies or other topics, and categorize their friends into lists such as “People From Work” or “Close Friends”. In groups, editors can pin posts to top. Additionally, users can complain about or block unpleasant people. Because of the large volume of data that users submit to the service, Facebook has come under scrutiny for its privacy policies. Facebook makes most of its revenue from advertisements which appear onscreen.

Bad things about facebook: 

  1. It can make you feel like your life isn’t as cool as everyone else’s. Social psychologist Leon Festinger observed that people are naturally inclined to engage in social comparison. To answer a question like “Am I doing better or worse than average?” you need to check out other people like you. Facebook is a quick, effortless way to engage in social comparison, but with even one glance through your News Feed you might see pictures of your friends enjoying a mouth-watering dinner at Chez Panisse, or perhaps winning the Professor of the Year award at Yale University. Indeed, a study by Chou and Edge (2012) found that chronic Facebook users tend to think that other people lead happier lives than their own, leading them to feel that life is less fair.
  2. It can lead you to envy your friends’ successes. Did cousin Annabelle announce a nice new promotion last month, a new car last week, and send a photo from her cruise vacation to Aruba this morning?  Not only can Facebook make you feel like you aren’t sharing in your friends’ happiness, but it can also make you feel envious of their happy lives. Buxmann and Krasnova (2013) have found that seeing others’ highlights on your News Feed can make you envious of friends’ travels, successes, and appearances. Additional findings suggest that the negative psychological impact of passively following others on Facebook is driven by the feelings of envy that stem from passively skimming your News Feed.
  3. It can lead to a sense of false consensus. Sit next to a friend while you each search for the same thing on Google. Eli Pariser, author of The Filter Bubble (2012), can promise you won’t see the same search results. Not only have your Internet searches grown more personalized, so have social networking sites. Facebook’s sorting function places posts higher in your News Feed if they’re from like-minded friends—which may distort your view of the world (Constine, 2012). This can lead you to believe that your favorite political candidate is a shoe-in for the upcoming election, even though many of your friends are saying otherwise…you just won’t hear them.
  4. It can keep you in touch with people you’d really rather forget.  Want to know what your ex is up to? You can…and that might not be a good thing.Facebook stalking has made it harder to let go of past relationships. Does she seem as miserable as I am? Is that ambiguous post directed at me? Has she started dating that guy from trivia night? These questions might better remain unanswered; indeed, Marshall (2012) found that Facebook users who reported visiting their former partner’s page experienced disrupted post-breakup emotional recovery and higher levels of distress. Even if you still run into your ex in daily life, the effects of online surveillance were significantly worse than those of offline contact.
  5. It can make you jealous of your current partner.  Facebook stalking doesn’t only apply to your ex.  Who is this Stacy LaRue, and why is she constantly “liking” my husband’s Facebook posts?   Krafsky and Krafsky, authors of Facebook and Your Marriage (2010), address many common concerns in relationships that stem from Facebook use. “Checking up on” your partner’s page can often lead to jealousy and even unwarranted suspicion, particularly if your husband’s exes frequently come into the picture. Krafsky and Krafsky recommend talking with your partner about behaviors that you both consider safe and trustworthy on Facebook, and setting boundaries where you don’t feel comfortable.
  6. It can reveal information you might not want to share with potential employers.  Do you really want a potential employer to know about how drunk you got at last week’s kegger…or the interesting wild night that followed with the girl in the blue bikini?  Peluchette and Karl (2010) found that 40% of users mention alcoholuse on their Facebook page, and 20% mention sexual activities. We often think these posts are safe from prying eyes, but that might not be the case. While 89% of jobseekers use social networking sites, 37% of potential employers do, as well—and are actively looking into their potential hires (Smith, 2013). If you’re on the job market, make sure to check your privacy settings and restrict any risqué content to “Friends Only”, if you don’t wish to delete it entirely.
  7. It can become addictive.  Think society’s most common addictive substances are coffee, cigarettes, and alcohol? Think again. The DSM-V (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual) includes a new diagnosis that has stirred controversy: a series of items gauging Internet Addiction. Since then, Facebook addiction has gathered attention from both popular media and empirical journals, leading to the creation of a Facebook addiction scale (Paddock, 2012; see below for items). To explore the seriousness of this addiction, Hofmann and colleagues (2012) randomly texted participants over the course of a week to ask what they most desired at that particular moment. They found that among their participants, social media use was craved even more than tobacco and alcohol.
  8. My opinion: For example: what if one of your subscribers says to you to go to the most expensive restaurant in the world 20 times? You’re just wasting money because of this.

Good things about facebook:

1. Boost your confidence in minutes. According to a Cornell University study, spending just 3 minutes on Facebook can make you feel better about yourself, possibly because you’re able to choose the information you put out there. Bonus: Editing your own profile during a Facebook break yields the biggest confidence boost, researchers say.

2. Chill out by perusing posts. Students experienced a decrease in heart rate and lower levels of stress and tension when using the social network, report researchers from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

3. Dream up vacation ideas. German researchers found that many users report feeling envious while visiting Facebook. Specifically, drooling over others’ vacation photos triggers more than half of jealousy-inducing incidents. But research shows taking a vacation reduces stress, increases satisfaction, and could even help you live longer. Turn your resentment into inspiration and book that beach getaway—then make others jealous with photos of your toes in the sand.

4. Show off! Nearly two thirds of men report putting their art, music, writing, and photography online compared to just 50 percent of women, Northwestern University researchers found.

5. Drop pounds. Participants following a weight loss program shed more weight—4.5 pounds, on average—when they joined a Facebook group than those who followed the program without the social media component. Sharing your goals and progress can help you feel accountable and motivated.

6. Fight pain. People report lower levels of pain while viewing photos of a loved one, say UCLA researchers. Got a dentist’s appointment scheduled? Cue up your girlfriend’s profile.

7. Boost productivity. In a study at the University of Melbourne, workers given a 10-minute break to read Facebook were 16 percent more productive than a group that wasn’t allowed to use the Internet during the rest, and 40 percent more productive than people who didn’t receive a break at all.

8. Smarten up.  A University of Arizona study found that older adults who used Facebook experienced a 25 percent improvement in their working memory, possibly because it requires you to process so much information—photos, status updates, and comments—at once. It’s a mini mental workout.

9.  Land a date. Men feel more confident saying things online they may not say in person, Buechel says. In other words, logging on can give you the guts to message a girl you’re attracted to, but are afraid to make the first move with face-to-face.

10. Stay informed. Thirty-one percent of men and women say keeping up with the news is the major reason they log on to Facebook, according to Pew Research Center survey findings.

11. My opinion: Posting some interesting facts to your friends. That’s all that I have….

Alright, final decision. Is Facebook bad for you? My vote………….. YES!!! 

Why yes? It’s still addictive now. And I heard a lot of people wasting their money because their subscribers told them to go to restaurants.

Leave a comment for your opinion↓

Sources: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Facebookhttps://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/sex-murder-and-the-meaning-life/201404/7-ways-facebook-is-bad-your-mental-health, and http://www.menshealth.com/guy-wisdom/10-reasons-facebook-good

Why can’t Chickens Fly?

Why can’t Chickens Fly?

Most chicken breeds are still able to fly short distances. For example, flying up into a tree (that’s where they would naturally roost), or to escape a predator.

They certainly are not good at flying, though. There are two reasons for that.

1. Ancestry
Chickens were bred from a wild species call the red jungle fowl. These jungle fowl are a little more adept at flying than chickens are now, but they are fundamentally more adapted for a ground-based life

All of their food is located on the ground, and they have an adapted beak to match. Their feet are adapted for walking, rather than perching. Its wings have become partially vestigial since the survival of an individual no longer relies heavily on flight; instead, natural selection has advanced those ground-oriented traits. So, to recap, chickens are bad at flying because their direct ancestor was bad at flying, because they’re adapted for spending time on the ground.

2. Selective Breeding by Humans
Chickens are not a natural species; they were created by breeding the red jungle fowl into a new organism. Since humans were responsible for the gene selection process (“artificial selection”, as opposed to natural selection), chickens were bred not for survivability traits, but to have great big tasty breast muscles. Chickens’ ability to fly has only worsened under human management because no breeder has prioritized that, opting instead for edibility and commercial traits.

How can the Glass Catfish be Transparent?

How can is the Glass Catfish be Transparent?

You’ve probably heard about this fish. But if you don’t know what the fish looks like I’ll tell you how it looks like. Anyway, I wrote this post because I was wondering why is it transparent. The answer will be below.

Kryptopterus vitreolus, known in the aquarium trade traditionally as the glass catfish and also as the ghost catfish or phantom catfish, is a small species of Asian glass catfish. It is commonly seen in the freshwater aquarium trade, but its taxonomy is confusing and was only fully resolved in 2013. It is endemic to Thailand, where found in rivers south of the Isthmus of Kra that drain into the Gulf of Thailand and river basins in the Cardamom Mountains. There are also unconfirmed reports from Penang in Malaysia.

 

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A Glass Catfish

Until 1989, it was considered to be the same as the “glass catfish” Kryptopterus bicirrhis, a larger species infrequently seen in the aquarium trade. Subsequently, the ghost catfish commonly seen in the aquarium trade was believed to be the same as K. minor, but in 2013 it was established that the aquarium specimens actually represented another species, which was described as K. vitreolusThe true K. minor, which is restricted to Borneo, has rarely (if ever) entered the aquarium trade.

But how is it transparent?

This is a question for which there is no satisfactory answer, because we are only beginning to understand the physical and anatomical basis of transparency in living tissue.

Although the physical and anatomical bases for some transparent tissue (e.g. the cornea and lens in the eye) are better understood than others, the situation in the eye is unique in the sense that the tissues are highly modified for transparency and these modifications (e.g. complete absence of a circulatory system) are not applicable to muscular tissue.
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Furthermore, many of the primary modifications for transparency are ultrastructural and can only be seen with an electron microscope. For biological tissue to become transparent, the primary mechanism is to reduce the amount of light being scattered as it passes through it: the less light scattered by the tissue, the more light will be transmitted through it and the more it becomes transparent.

While we do not yet fully understand how biological tissues (particularly muscles) can be transparent, there are several possible mechanisms which might contribute.  The first is that transparent fishes such as glass catfishes and glassfish have very thin bodies.  The flatter the body, the less the potential scattering of light (and hence the easier it is to make the tissue transparent).

Another possible mechanism is the ordered packing of small molecules within the cytoplasm of the cells to reduce the scattering of light.

Lastly, theoretical models also predict that the many subcellular components of transparent tissues (e.g. mitochondria, ribosomes) should be small and highly dispersed. As a recent review paper on biological transparency states, this field of study has more questions than answers, and we await future studies to fully understand this phenomenon.

 

Leaf Fish

Leaf Fish

Do you know what camouflage is? Camouflage is the use of any combination of materials, coloration, or illumination for concealment, either by making animals or objects hard to see (crypsis), or by disguising them as something else (mimesis). Examples include the leopard’s spotted coat, the battledress of a modern soldier, and the leaf-mimic katydid‘s wings. A third approach, motion dazzle, confuses the observer with a conspicuous pattern, making the object visible but momentarily harder to locate. The majority of camouflage methods aim for crypsis, often through a general resemblance to the background, high contrast disruptive coloration, eliminating shadow, and countershading. In the open ocean, where there is no background, the principal methods of camouflage are transparency, silvering, and countershading, while the ability to produce light is among other things used for counter-illumination on the undersides of cephalopods such as squid. Some animals, such as chameleons and octopuses, are capable of actively changing their skin pattern and colours, whether for camouflage or for signalling.

Some animals camouflage in the ocean like the rockfish or flounders. But in my opinion, this one would be the best. It is called the “leaf fish”.
Monocirrhus polyacanthus.jpg

Leaffishes are small freshwater fishes of the Polycentridae family, from South America.

All of these fishes are highly specialized ambush predators that resemble leaves, down to the point that their swimming style resembles a drifting leaf (thus the common name leaf fish, which is shared with old world fishes of family Nandidae with a similar lifestyle); when a prey animal – such as an aquatic insect or smaller fish – comes within range, the fish attacks, swallowing the prey potentially within a quarter of a second. To aid in this lifestyle, all members of the family have large heads, cryptic colors and very large protractile mouths capable of taking prey items nearly as large as they are. These intriguing behaviors have given the family a niche in the aquarium hobby; however, none of these species are easy to maintain in aquariums, requiring very clean, soft, acidic water and copious amounts of live foods.

How to Make a Burglar Alarm Mat

How to Make a Burglar Alarm Mat

If a wire connects the circuit will turn on. If a wire is disconnected the circuit will turn off. Wait, that gave me an idea! So today I’ll show you how to make a burglar alarm mat or an alarm under a mat.

Things you’ll need: Aluminum foil, paper clips, a battery, 3 pieces of wire, 2 straws, tape, and a speaker with sound (I used a piezo buzzer).20170612_124758

  1. Connect two pieces of wire on the battery and connect the speaker to one end.20170612_125814
  2. Connect one more wire to the speaker.20170612_124941
  3. Make a chain out of paper clips and connect it with the other wire.
  4. Tape the straws on the ends of the foil and tape the paperclips between them.20170612_125750
  5. Connect the other wire to another piece of foil.
  6. Stack the foils on top on each other and step on it. The speaker will turn on. You could also hide it under a rug or a mat.20170612_125524

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A wire is a single, usually cylindrical, flexible strand or rod of metal. Wires are used to bear mechanical loads or electricity and telecommunications signals. Wire is commonly formed by drawing the metal through a hole in a die or draw plate. Wire gauges come in various standard sizes, as expressed in terms of a gauge number. The term wire is also used more loosely to refer to a bundle of such strands, as in “multistranded wire”, which is more correctly termed a wire rope in mechanics, or a cable in electricity.

Wire comes in solid core, stranded, or braided forms. Although usually circular in cross-section, wire can be made in square, hexagonal, flattened rectangular, or other cross-sections, either for decorative purposes, or for technical purposes such as high-efficiency voice coils in loudspeakers. Edge-wound coil springs, such as the Slinky toy, are made of special flattened wire.

Eggs are Strong

Eggs are Strong

Next time someone’s cooking with eggs around your house, save the eggshells so that you could astound your friends with this incredible stunt.

Things you’ll need: 4 raw eggs, a small pair of scissors, masking tape, some books.

  1. To crack the eggs and get four empty eggshells, gently break open the small end of each egg by tapping it on a table or counter.20170611_120634
  2. Carfully peel away some of the eggshell.20170611_120758
  3. Pour out the egg inside.
  4. Put a piece of masking tape around the middle of each eggshell.20170611_121250
  5. Put the eggshells on a table, open end down, in a rectangle that’s just a smaller than one of your books.20170611_121328
  6. Lay a book on the eggshells. Do any of the shells crack?
  7. Keep adding books until – CRRACKK! How many books you can stack on the eggs? Weigh the books and see how many kg or lb it took the break the eggs. Mine is 3.8 kilograms!20170611_121503

Each half pf the eggshell is a miniature dome, and domes are one of the strongest shapes. Why? Weight on the top of the dome is carried down along the curved walls to the wide base. No single point on the dome supports the whole weight of the object on the top of it. That is why domes are often used for big buildings that can’t have pillar supports, such as hocky rinks and arenas.

Staff at the Ontario Science Centre in Toronto have shown that a single egg can support a 90 kg (200 lb) person.

The Wood-nettle: a Plant that could Sting like a Bee

The Wood-nettle: a Plant that could Sting like a Bee

This will be a short post. If you’re interested please continue reading. There are lots of poisonous plants out there. But not as painful as this one:330px-Gardenology.org-IMG_1442_bbg09

Laportea canadensis, commonly called Canada nettle or wood-nettle, is an annual or perennial herbaceous plant of the nettle family Urticaceae, native to eastern and central North America. It is found growing in open woods with moist rich soils and along streams and in drainages.

Laportea canadensis grows from tuberous roots to a height of 30 to 150 centimeters, and can be rhizomatous, growing into small clumps. Plants have both stinging and non stinging hairs on the foliage and the stems. It has whitish green flowers, produced from spring to early fall.

This herbaceous perennial plant is about 2-4′ tall and either branched or unbranched. The stems are light to medium green and abundantly covered with stiff white hairs that have the capacity to sting when they are rubbed against. The lower to middle leaves are alternate, while the upper leaves are opposite. These leaves are up to 6″ long and 4″ across; they are medium to dark green, ovate-cordate to oval-ovate in shape, and coarsely serrated or serrated-crenate. Young leaves are densely hairy and wrinkled in appearance, while older leaves become less hairy and wrinkled with age. Leaf venation is pinnate. The petioles are up to 4″ long and abundantly covered with stinging hairs, like the stems. The leaves may have a few stinging hairs as well, particularly along the central veins of their undersides. Some plants have a tendency to loose many of their stinging hairs as the season progresses. Individual plants are either monoecious (separate male and female flowers on the same plant) or unisexual.

The male flowers occur in branching cymes from the axils of the leaves. These cymes spread outward from the stem and they are about the same length as the petioles of the leaves. Each male flower is greenish white to white and less than 1/8″ (3 mm.) across, consisting of 5 narrow sepals, 5 stamens, and no petals. The female flowers occur in branching cymes toward the apex of the plant. These cymes are erect to spreading and 4″ or more in length. Each female flower is more or less green and about 1/8″ (3 mm.) across, consisting of 4 sepals of unequal size (2 large and 2 small) and an ovary with a long style. The blooming period usually occurs during mid- to late summer. The flowers are wind-pollinated. Each female flower is replaced by a small dry fruit that is curved and ovoid in shape. This plant often forms colonies of variable size.

When the stinging nettles come in contact with the skin, the unlucky individual is dealt a painful burning stinging sensation, sometimes with barbs left in the skin. The skin can turn red and blister, and blisters can last for several days.

Mmm… that should really hurt. Well, thanks a lot for viewing this short post.

Walking Fishes

 Walking Fishes

Can fishes walk on land? Sounds crazy! But these two fish can.

1.  Mudskippers are amphibious fish, presently included in the subfamily Oxudercinae, within the family Gobiidae (gobies). Recent molecular studies do not support this classification, as oxudercine gobies appear to be paraphyletic relative to amblyopine gobies (Gobiidae: Amblyopinae), thus being included in a distinct “Periophthalmus lineage”, together with amblyopines. Mudskippers can be defined as oxudercine gobies that are “fully terrestrial for some portion of the daily cycle” (character 24 in Murdy, 1989). This would define the species of the genera Boleophthalmus, Periophthalmodon, Periophthalmus, and Scartelaos as “mudskippers”. However, field observations of Zappa confluentus suggest that this monotypic genus should be included in the definition. These genera presently include 32 species. Mudskippers use their pectoral fins and pelvic fins to walk on land. They typically live in intertidal habitats, and exhibit unique adaptations to this environment that are not found in most intertidal fishes, which typically survive the retreat of the tide by hiding under wet seaweed or in tide pools.

Mudskippers are quite active when out of water, feeding and interacting with one another, for example, to defend their territories and court potential partners. They are found in tropical, subtropical, and temperate regions, including the Indo-Pacific and the Atlantic coast of Africa.

 

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Mudskippers

2. Climbing Perch

The Anabantidae are a family of perciform fish commonly called the climbing gouramies or climbing perches. The family includes about 34 species. As labyrinth fishes, they possess a labyrinth organ, a structure in the fish’s head which allows it to breathe atmospheric oxygen. Fish of this family are commonly seen gulping at air at the surface of the water. The air is held in a structure called the suprabranchial chamber, where oxygen diffuses into the bloodstream via the respiratory epithelium covering the labyrinth organ. This therefore allows the fish to move small distances across land.

 

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Climbing  Gourami on land
Of the four genera, Anabas is found from South Asia (they are called chemballi (Malayalam: urulan sugu/Karippidi) in Kerala, kau (odia) in Odisha, India, kawaiya in Sri Lanka), east to China and Southeast Asia. The remaining three genera are all restricted to Africa. They are primarily freshwater fishes and only very rarely are found in brackish water. As egg-layers, they typically guard their eggs and young.

Climbing gouramis are so named due to their ability to “climb” out of water and “walk” short distances. Even though it is not reliably observed, some authors mentioned about they having a tree climbing ability. Their method of terrestrial locomotion uses the gill plates as supports, and the fish pushes itself using its fins and tail.

Mudskipper video

Climbing Perch video

 

Ice is Sticky

Ice is Sticky

I have an experiment that uses only ice.

Things you’ll need: 2 ice cubes.

  1. Press the flat sides of two ice cubes together.

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    You probably know what I mean. I can’t do it because I’m holding the camera.
  2. Slowly count to thirty, then let go one of the ice cubes. What happened?

When you pushed the two ice cubes together, you created pressure between the two flat sides. Pressure melted the ice, making a thin layer of water in between. When you release the pressure, the water refroze, “gluing” the ice cubes together.

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It glued!

 

Do Dolphins live in Rivers?

Do Dolphins live in Rivers?

We probably heard that dolphins live in the ocean. But do they live in rivers? To find out please continue reading.

River dolphins are a widely distributed group of fully aquatic mammals that reside exclusively in freshwater or brackish water. They are an informal grouping of dolphins, which is a paraphyletic group within the infraorder Cetacea. The river dolphins comprise the extant families Platanistidae (the Indian dolphins), Iniidae (the Amazonian dolphins), and Pontoporiidae (the brackish dolphins). There are five extant species of river dolphins, and two subspecies. River dolphins, alongside other cetaceans, belong to the clade Cetartiodactyla, with even-toed ungulates, and their closest living relatives the hippopotamuses, having diverged about 40 million years ago.ddddd

River dolphins are relatively small compared to other dolphins, having evolved to survive in warm, shallow water and strong river currents. They range in size from the 5-foot (1.5 m) long South Asian river dolphin to the 8-foot (2.4 m) and 220-pound (100 kg) Amazon river dolphin. Several species exhibit sexual dimorphism, in that the males are larger than the females. They have streamlined bodies and two limbs that are modified into flippers. River dolphins use their conical-shaped teeth and long beaks to capture fast-moving prey in murky water. They have well-developed hearing that is adapted for both air and water; they do not really rely on vision since the water they swim in is usually very muddy. These species are well-adapted to living in warm, shallow waters, and, unlike other cetaceans, have little to no blubber.download

River dolphins are not very widespread; they are all restricted to certain rivers or deltas. This makes them extremely vulnerable to habitat destruction. River dolphins feed primarily on fish. Male river dolphins typically mate with multiple females every year, but females only mate every two to three years. Calves are typically born in the spring and summer months and females bear all the responsibility for raising them. River dolphins produce a variety of vocalizations, usually in the form of clicks and whistles.

River dolphins are rarely kept in captivity; breeding success has been poor and the animals often die within a few months of capture. As of 2015, there are only three river dolphins in captivity.

River dolphins are members of the infraorder Cetacea, which are descendants of land-dwelling mammals of the order Artiodactyla (even-toed ungulates). They are related to the Indohyus, an extinct chevrotain-like ungulate, from which they split approximately 48 million years ago.

 

 

Euglena, an Amazing Organism

Euglena, an Amazing Organism

I have found this amazing organism in one of my books. When I read the whole thing and read that sentence, I knew this would be great for my blog. This organism is half animal half plant. So if you’re interested please continue reading.

download

Euglena is a genus of single-celled flagellate Eukaryotes. It is the best known and most widely studied member of the class Euglenoidea, a diverse group containing some 54 genera and at least 800 species. Species of Euglena are found in fresh and salt waters. They are often abundant in quiet inland waters where they may bloom in numbers sufficient to color the surface of ponds and ditches green (E. viridis) or red (E. sanguinea).

The species Euglena gracilis has been used extensively in the laboratory as a model organism.

Most species of Euglena have photosynthesizing chloroplasts within the body of the cell, which enable them to feed by autotrophy, like plants. However, they can also take nourishment heterotrophically, like animals. Since Euglena have features of both animals and plants, early taxonomists, working within the Linnaean three-kingdom system of biological classification, found them difficult to classify. It was the question of where to put such “unclassifiable” creatures that prompted Ernst Haeckel to add a third living kingdom (a fourth kingdom in toto) to the Animale, Vegetabile (and Lapideum meaning Mineral) of Linnaeus: the Kingdom Protista.

Euglenoids_from_a_ditch.ogv

When feeding as a heterotroph, Euglena takes in nutrients by osmotrophy, and can survive without light on a diet of organic matter, such as beef extract, peptone, acetate, ethanol or carbohydrates. When there is sufficient sunlight for it to feed by phototrophy, it uses chloroplasts containing the pigments chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b to produce sugars by photosynthesisEuglena’s chloroplasts are surrounded by three membranes, while those of plants and the green algae (among which earlier taxonomists often placed Euglena) have only two membranes. This fact has been taken as morphological evidence that Euglena’s chloroplasts evolved from a eukaryotic green alga. Thus, the intriguing similarities between Euglena and the plants would have arisen not because of kinship but because of a secondary endosymbiosis. Molecular phylogenetic analysis has lent support to this hypothesis, and it is now generally accepted.

Diagram of Euglena sp.

Euglena chloroplasts contain pyrenoids, used in the synthesis of paramylon, a form of starch energy storage enabling Euglena to survive periods of light deprivation. The presence of pyrenoids is used as an identifying feature of the genus, separating it from other euglenoids, such as Lepocinclis and Phacus.

All euglenoids have two flagella rooted in basal bodies located in a small reservoir at the front of the cell. In Euglena, one flagellum is very short, and does not protrude from the cell, while the other is relatively long, and often easily visible with light microscopy. In some species, the longer, emergent flagellum is used to help the organism swim.

Like other euglenoids, Euglena possess a red eyespot, an organelle composed of carotenoid pigment granules. The red spot itself is not thought to be photosensitive. Rather, it filters the sunlight that falls on a light-detecting structure at the base of the flagellum (a swelling, known as the paraflagellar body), allowing only certain wavelengths of light to reach it. As the cell rotates with respect to the light source, the eyespot partially blocks the source, permitting the Euglena to find the light and move toward it (a process known as phototaxis).

Spiral pellicle strips

Euglena lacks a cell wall. Instead, it has a pellicle made up of a protein layer supported by a substructure of microtubules, arranged in strips spiraling around the cell. The action of these pellicle strips sliding over one another gives Euglena its exceptional flexibility and contractility.

In low moisture conditions, or when food is scarce, Euglena forms a protective wall around itself and lies dormant as a resting cyst until environmental conditions improve.

Euglena reproduce asexually through binary fission, a form of cell division. Reproduction begins with the mitosis of the cell nucleus, followed by the division of the cell itself. Euglena divide longitudinally, beginning at the front end of the cell, with the duplication of flagellar processes, gullet and stigma. Presently, a cleavage forms in the anterior, and a V-shaped bifurcation gradually moves toward the posterior, until the two halves are entirely separated.

 

How to make the Surface of the Moon

How to make the Surface of the Moon

The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth, being Earth’s only permanent natural satellite. It is the fifth-largest natural satellite in the Solar System, and the largest among planetary satellites relative to the size of the planet that it orbits (its primary). Following Jupiter’s satellite Io, the Moon is second-densest satellite among those whose densities are known.

The average distance of the Moon from the Earth is 384,400 km (238,900 mi), or 1.28 light-seconds.

The Moon is thought to have formed about 4.51 billion years ago, not long after Earth. There are several hypotheses for its origin; the most widely accepted explanation is that the Moon formed from the debris left over after a giant impact between Earth and a Mars-sized body called Theia.

The Moon is in synchronous rotation with Earth, always showing the same face, with its near side marked by dark volcanic maria that fill the spaces between the bright ancient crustal highlands and the prominent impact craters. It is the second-brightest regularly visible celestial object in Earth’s sky, after the Sun, as measured by illuminance on Earth’s surface. Its surface is actually dark, although compared to the night sky it appears very bright, with a reflectance just slightly higher than that of worn asphalt. Its prominence in the sky and its regular cycle of phases have made the Moon an important cultural influence since ancient times on language, calendars, art, and mythology.

The Moon’s gravitational influence produces the ocean tides, body tides, and the slight lengthening of the day. The Moon’s current orbital distance is about thirty times the diameter of Earth, with its apparent size in the sky almost the same as that of the Sun, resulting in the Moon covering the Sun nearly precisely in total solar eclipse. This matching of apparent visual size will not continue in the far future. The Moon’s linear distance from Earth is currently increasing at a rate of 3.82 ± 0.07 centimetres (1.504 ± 0.028 in) per year, but this rate is not constant.

The Soviet Union’s Luna programme was the first to reach the Moon with uncrewed spacecraft in 1959; the United States’ NASA Apollo program achieved the only crewed missions to date, beginning with the first crewed lunar orbiting mission by Apollo 8 in 1968, and six crewed lunar landings between 1969 and 1972, with the first being Apollo 11. These missions returned over 380 kg (840 lb) of lunar rocks, which have been used to develop a geological understanding of the Moon’s origin, the formation of its internal structure, and its subsequent history. Since the Apollo 17 mission in 1972, the Moon has been visited only by uncrewed spacecraft.

Now, after we know what the moon is, let’s make the surface.

Things you’ll need: plaster dust, a deep plate, small rocks, forceps, and a sprayer.

  1. Pour the plaster dust onto the plate and spread it around. This is the surface of the moon.20170604_103100
  2. Drop the rocks on the plate carefully. The rocks are meteors.20170604_103127
  3. Use the forceps to take the rocks out.20170604_103226
  4. Spary some water on it. Now you have a moon surface.20170604_103912

A permanent asymmetric moon dust cloud exists around the Moon, created by small particles from comets. Estimates are 5 tons of comet particles strike the Moon’s surface each 24 hours. The particles strike the Moon’s surface ejecting moon dust above the Moon. The dust stays above the Moon approximately 10 minutes, taking 5 minutes to rise, and 5 minutes to fall. On average, 120 kilograms of dust are present above the Moon, rising to 100 kilometers above the surface. The dust measurements were made by LADEE’s Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX), between 20 and 100 kilometers above the surface, during a six-month period. LDEX detected an average of one 0.3 micrometer moon dust particle each minute. Dust particle counts peaked during the Geminid, Quadrantid, Northern Taurid, and Omicron Centaurid meteor showers, when the Earth, and Moon, pass through comet debris. The cloud is asymmetric, more dense near the boundary between the Moon’s dayside and nightside

The Magnetic Strip of Credit Cards

The Magnetic Strip of Credit Cards

Credit cards offer you a line of credit that can be used to make purchases, balance transfers and/or cash advances and requiring that you pay back the loan amount in the future. When using a credit card, you will need to make at least the minimum payment every month by the due date on the balance. I’ll show you that there’s a magnetic field on the strip.

Things you’ll need: a used credit card, clear tape, iron dust, and a piece of paper.20170531_115513

  1. Sprinkle the iron dust onto the magnetic stripe on the credit card.20170531_115650 - Copy
  2. Tap the credit card on the table to make the iron dust spread around the magnetic stripe20170531_115728
  3. Put a piece of tape along the magnetic stripe.20170531_115822
  4. Pull the tape out and observe it.20170531_115938

The ­stripe on the back of a credit card is a magnetic stripe (that’s what you’re seeing on the tape), often called a magstripe. The magstripe is made up of tiny iron-based magnetic particles in a plastic-like film. Each particle is really a very tiny bar magnet about 20 millionths of an inch long.

Your card also has a magstripe on the back and a place for your all-important signature.
The magstripe can be “written” because the tiny bar magnets can be magnetized in either a north or south pole direction. The magstripe on the back of the card is very similar to a piece of cassette tape fastened to the back of a card. (See How Tape Recorders Work.)
Instead of motors moving the tape so it can be read, your hand provides the motion as you “swipe” a credit card through a reader or insert it in a reader at the gas station pump.
There are three basic methods for determining that your credit card will pay for what you’re charging:

  • Merchants with few transactions each month do voice authentication, using a touch tone phone.
  • Electronic data capture (EDC) magstripe card swipe terminals are becoming more common — so is having you swipe your own card at the checkout.
  • Virtual terminal on the Internet

This is how it works: After you or the cashier swipes your credit card through a reader, the EDC software at the point of sale (POS) terminal dials a stored telephone number via a modem to call an acquirer. An acquirer is an organization that collects credit authentication requests from merchants and provides a payment guarantee to the merchant.
When the acquirer company gets the credit card authentication request, it checks the transaction for validity and the record on the magstripe for:

  • Merchant ID
  • Valid card number
  • Expiration date
  • Credit card limit
  • Card usage

The Tropical Pitcher Plant

The Tropical Pitcher Plant

I’ve found this amazing plant and I’ve grown it in my garden before. But it died because of the humid weather in Thailand. Anyway, I want to show you this amazing plant and what can it do.330px-Nepenthes_peltata

Nepenthes, also known as tropical pitcher plants or monkey cups, is a genus of carnivorous plants in the monotypic family Nepenthaceae. The genus comprises roughly 150 species, and numerous natural and many cultivated hybrids. They are mostly liana-forming plants of the Old World tropics, ranging from South China, Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines; westward to Madagascar (two species) and the Seychelles (one); southward to Australia (three) and New Caledonia (one); and northward to India (one) and Sri Lanka (one). The greatest diversity occurs on Borneo, Sumatra, and the Philippines, with many endemic species. Many are plants of hot, humid, lowland areas, but the majority are tropical montane plants, receiving warm days but cool to cold, humid nights year round. A few are considered tropical alpine, with cool days and nights near freezing. The name “monkey cups” refers to the fact that monkeys have been observed drinking rainwater from these plants.

Nepenthes_distribution.svg
Global distribution of Nepenthes

 

Nepenthes species usually consist of a shallow root system and a prostrate or climbing stem, often several metres long and up to 15 m (49 ft) or more, and usually 1 cm (0.4 in) or less in diameter, although this may be thicker in a few species (e.g. N. bicalcarata). From the stems arise alternate, sword-shaped leaves with entire leaf margins. An extension of the midrib (the tendril), which in some species aids in climbing, protrudes from the tip of the leaf; at the end of the tendril the pitcher forms. The pitcher starts as a small bud and gradually expands to form a globe- or tube-shaped trap.

Basic structure of an upper pitcher
Here is the important part.

 

The trap contains a fluid of the plant’s own production, which may be watery or syrupy, and is used to drown the prey. Research has shown this fluid contains viscoelastic biopolymers that may be crucial to the retention of insects within the traps of many species. The viscoelastic fluid in pitchers is especially effective in the retention of winged insects. The trapping efficiency of this fluid remains high, even when significantly diluted by water, as inevitably happens in wet conditions.

The lower part of the trap contains glands which absorb nutrients from captured prey. Along the upper inside part of the trap is a slick, waxy coating which makes the escape of its prey nearly impossible. Surrounding the entrance to the trap is a structure called the peristome (the “lip”) which is slippery and often quite colorful, attracting prey, but offering an unsure footing. The prey-capture effectiveness of the peristome is further enhanced in moist environments, where condensation may cause a thin water film to form on the surface of the peristome. When wet, the slippery surface of the peristome causes insects to ‘aquaplane’, or slip and fall, into the pitcher. Above the peristome is a lid (the operculum); in many species, this keeps rain from diluting the fluid within the pitcher, the underside of which may contain nectar glands which attract prey.

Prey usually consists of insects, but the largest species (e.g. N. rajah and N. rafflesiana) may occasionally catch small vertebrates, such as rats and lizards.255px-Rattus_baluensis_visiting_Nepenthes_rajahThere are even records of cultivated plants trapping small birds. Flowers occur in racemes or more rarely in panicles with male and female flowers on separate plants. They are insect-pollinated, the primary agents being flies (including blow flies, midges, and mosquitoes), moths, wasps, and butterflies. Their smells can range from sweet to musty or fungus-like. Seed is typically produced in a four-sided capsule which may contain 50–500 wind-distributed seeds, consisting of a central embryo and two wings, one on either side.

What will Happen if You stop taking showers?

What will Happen if You stop taking showers?

Introduction: On the last time, I did a post about: Are Video Games Bad for You?. And the answer will be on there. But today I have a new question. The question is: What will happen if you stop taking showers? This is going to be weird but, I really want to know what will happen if you do that. Now it’s two articles in a row. So let’s get started.

I think if you never take a shower, your friends in school or nobody would probably get close to you. Nobody at all.

1. The first thing that would happen to you is you will stink. Of course, when you sweat and didn’t take a shower you will stink. The components of sweat are 99% water and 1% of salt, urea, and bacteria. Sweat itself does not in fact smell. The familiar smell of body odor, or B.O, comes from normal skin bacteria breaking down the sweat secretions released from the sweat glands. This is because the apocrine glands, which are involved in causing body odor, begin to function from puberty. That is why you stink after you sweat.

Yes. This is already bad because you stink… And nobody would come close to you as said above.

2. The second thing that will happen is you are going to have Germs, Germs, And More germs! Your body typically has a lot of bacteria on your skin, most of which are actually good for you. Some of them provide useful functions for your skin, and even the otherwise “useless” ones take up space that harmful bacteria might have occupied instead, effectively crowding out the bad germs. But harmful bacteria can still wind up on your skin, and when you don’t take showers, you increase the chances that those harmful germs will get into your body through your eyes, nose, or mouth — and then get you sick.dd

Scary right? But that’s not all.

3. If you don’t wash them away, dirt, sweat, dead skin, and oil build up on your skin, which not only makes you look dirty, it’s also bad for you. In addition to possibly getting sick, some types of bacteria and fungi can cause skin infections, too, especially if you don’t periodically wash them away.images

Yup, it’s getting worse but there is still more.

4. Go without washing for long enough and you’ll wind up with brown scaly patches on your skin, a condition dermatologists call dermatitis neglecta.

Dermatosis neglecta is a skin condition in which accumulation of sebum, keratin, sweat, dirt and debris leads to a localized patch of skin discoloration or a wart-like plaque. It is caused by inadequate hygiene of a certain body part, usually due to some form of disability or a condition that is associated with pain or increased sensitivity to touch (hyperesthesia) or immobility.

Dermatosis neglecta typically develops several months after a disability or other affliction leads to improper cleaning. Patients may deny that negligence is the cause of the lesion, even though it completely resolves on vigorous rubbing with alcohol swabs or water and soap (which provides both diagnosis and treatment). Recognizing the diagnosis avoids unnecessary skin biopsies.

Examples of case reports from the literature include a man who avoided washing the skin area surrounding an artificial pacemaker out of fear it might be damaged; a woman who didn’t clean the right side of her chest due to hyperesthesia following an amputation for breast cancer (mastectomy); a girl who was afraid to wash the area around an abdominal scar; and a man with multiple fractures, shoulder dislocation and radial nerve palsy which significantly reduced his mobility. Ick!

IndianJDermatol_2015_60_2_185_152525_f5
dermatosis neglecta on woman’s face

Wow! that is very scary… I wish this woman wasn’t on my blog 😦

Watch this video to learn more about this article.

I take showers every day. And as you could see that stop taking showers is bad for your health. So you should take showers every day. And there is one thing that I just thought about. If you never take showers that mean you never wash your hair. That means you have a chance to have lice in your hair.

See also: Amou Haji, the man who hasn’t bathed in 60 years!

 

Are Video Games Bad for You?

Are Video Games Bad for You?

Introduction: The last time I did a post about Why Kids Should Study Science. And it has 6 views and four likes but maybe it has more now. Anyway, now my question is: Does video games make your brain think slower? Good question right? And on this post I’ll try to find the answer to this question from internet. So let’s get started. Also, try to read the whole post please if you’re interested.

The first video game was created in October 1958, Physicist William Higinbotham created what is thought to be the first video game. It was a very simple tennis game, similar to the classic 1970s video game Pong, and it was quite a hit at a Brookhaven National Laboratory open house. After that, Since the 1980s, video gaming has become a popular form of entertainment and a part of modern popular culture in most parts of the world. One of the early games was Spacewar!, which was developed by computer scientists. Early arcade video games developed from 1972 to 1978.

After that, there were more video games created like Minecraft and Terraria. Both of those video games are popular. Now if you ask me do I like video games? Well… of course! All kids like video games including me.

Article number 1.

Anyway, let’s go back to our question. Some studies suggest that video gaming can improve vision and enhance information processing abilities. But that may be total nonsense, according to a study that examined the short-term effects of video-game ownership on academic development in young boys. Families with boys between the ages of 6 to 9 were recruited for the study in Psychological Science. The families did not own video-game systems, but the parents had been considering buying one for their kids. The children completed intelligence tests as well as reading and writing assessments. In addition, the boys’ parents and teachers filled out questionnaires relating to their behavior at home and at school.

Half of the families were selected to receive a video-game system (along with three, age-appropriate video games) immediately, while the remaining families were promised a video-game system four months later, at the end of the experiment. Over the course of the four months, the parents recorded their children’s activities from the end of the school day until bedtime. At the four-month time point, the children repeated the reading and writing assessments and parents and teachers again completed the behavioral questionnaires.

Results showed that the boys who received the video-game system immediately spent more time playing video games and less time engaged in after-school academic activities than boys who received the video-game system at the end of the experiment.

Furthermore, the boys who received the video-game system at the beginning of the study had significantly lower reading and writing scores four months later compared with the boys receiving the video-game system later on. Although there were no differences in parent-reported behavioral problems between the two groups of kids, the boys who received the video-game system immediately had greater teacher-reported learning problems.

Further analysis revealed that the time spent playing video games may link the relationship between owning a video-game system and reading and writing scores. These findings suggest that video games may be displacing after-school academic activities and may impede reading and writing development in young boys.

After these paragraphs, the answer is probably yes. But let’s not decide yet, look at these paragrapgs on the bottom.

Article number 2.

With the rise of video games in modern culture, researchers and psychologists have taken close looks at the impact gaming can have on people in a multitude of situations. Numerous experiments have been done in recent years, many of which draw conclusions that gaming can increase brain function, problem solving skills, spatial reasoning, memory, attention span, strategic planning, and even social skills among others.

But “video game” is a broad term — with so many different types of games, researchers have focused their studies to see how different genres affect players. Let’s take a look at the benefits of various game types.

Puzzle/Platformers

Improves: Brain function, IQ

These brainteaser games are meant to give your mind a workout. Puzzle games like Brain Age or Angry Birds — which use problem-solving, memory, spatial reasoning, and attention to detail — can boost brain function and IQ, as well as slow down the brain’s aging process. But some games don’t make it quite so obvious that players are flexing those skills. The Legend of Zelda and Mario Bros.franchises are both well-known for challenging puzzles that you’re required to figure out in order to advance to the next area or unlock some special item. Additionally, the platforming aspects (jumping from place to place, avoiding projectiles, moving around obstacles, etc.) of some games can also improve motor skills and reaction time.

Role-Playing Games (RPGs)

Improves: Problem-solving, strategy, logic, reasoning

Mass Effect, the Elder Scrolls, and Final Fantasy are just a few famous franchises that are RPGs — games in which the player assumes the role of a character. Typically, RPGs focus on player-driven choices, dialogue options, and the consequences of player actions. In essence, RPGs are much more customizable than other games, which leads to unique experiences and no two games being quite the same. Though many cognitive elements are utilized while playing these games, the most prevalent ones are problem-solving, strategy, and reasoning. Socially, players can exercise their empathy and ethics, as they’re often faced with morally difficult choices that can have lingering consequences — skills you can take back to the “real world.”

Real Time Strategy (RTS):

Improves: Planning, Multitasking, Prioritization

Flickr user Jeff Nelson

Sometimes you have to think on your feet, a useful lifelong skill that can be developed and exercised in RTS games. As the name suggests, these games use strategic planning in order to accomplish a task, defeat an enemy, or work with other players (known as a co-op) to win. Games like StarCraft, Age of Empires, or World of Warcraft all challenge a player to think ahead, think smart, and think together (if it’s co-op). And since it’s in real-time, things can go wrong. While players increase their multitasking ability and prioritizing skills, they also learn to adapt to changing situations.

Now the answer is probably no. But…. let’s keep looking before decide. Here’s the most important part

Article number 3.

1. Though the activity level needed to play Wii or Xbox Kinect are a step in the right direction, a majority of video games still involve sitting in front of a screen, often with poor posture.  A study published in Pediatrics International found that “excessive television-game playing” led to increased levels of muscle stiffness, especially in the shoulders.

2. Experts have long debated whether violent video games desensitize young people to violence. Some studies have disputed this while others, indicate that young people who show more rapid desensitization to violent pictures are going to be more accepting of violence, which is dangerous to the community at large.

3. Many parents suspect that kids who spend significant amounts of time playing video games may not be devoting enough time to school work.  A report in Issues in Mental Health Nursing confirmed just this: “Results revealed that time spent playing games was related … to aggression and … to school competence.”  In particular, violent games were directly related to attention problems and generally led to a greater decline in academic performance.

4. According to a report in Pediatrics, seven out of 10 children are vitamin D deficient.  Vitamin D, of course, is commonly absorbed from exposure to sunlight.  Unfortunately, being holed up in front of video games system does not afford the same exposure to sunlight as, say, being outside.  Word to the wise: Leave your mom’s basement and go outside from time to time.

5. Yes, video games have been associated with changes in physical appearance.  According to Pediatrics International, school children who played “excessive” amounts of video games were much more likely to develop black rings in the skin under the eyes and to suffer from a displacement of the shoulder blade, which can be caused by poor posture and muscle stiffness.

6. A report in Pediatrics International recommends that video games should be limited to less than one hour per day. But some hardcore gamers are spending three times that amount of time playing.  Along with increased gaming can come sleep deprivation, especially among young people.  Rather than reducing the amount of time spent playing, gamers often opt to lose sleep instead.

7. A 2010 study found that kids who spend too much time watching TV or playing video games may have more trouble paying attention in school. Researchers found that children who had more than two hours of screen time per day were twice as likely to have trouble paying attention. The study, published in Pediatrics, analyzed both elementary school students and college students.

Yes, number 7 happens to me to sometimes. ↑

All right. The final answer is revealed.

Are video games bad for you? The answer is……………. Yes and No.

Why is it yes and no? What if it is only yes? Then article 2 is false.

But what if it’s no? Then articles 1 and 3 is false and everybody would be playing video games.

But why is it yes and no? According to my research and as you could see on the top, the first and the third article says that it is bad for your heath and knowledge. Video games (I think) is bad for your eyes and brain. But video games are good at some points too. It relieves stress and boredom. I only play video games for fun. I only play video games for thirty minutes or to an hour per day. I recommend to play video games for at least a half an hour or even never would be better. And try to tell your child to play less video games.

 

How to Make an Amber Fossil

How to Make an Amber Fossil

Amber is fossilized tree resin, which has been appreciated for its color and natural beauty since Neolithic times. Much valued from antiquity to the present as a gemstone, amber is made into a variety of decorative objects. Amber is used in jewelry. It has also been used as a healing agent in folk medicine.

There are five classes of amber, defined on the basis of their chemical constituents. Because it originates as a soft, sticky tree resin, amber sometimes contains animal and plant material as inclusions. Amber occurring in coal seams is also called resinite, and the term ambrite is applied to that found specifically within New Zealand coal seams.

Amber2
An ant inside Baltic amber.

I will show you how to make one from resin (glue)

Things you’ll need: resin, hardener for the resin, a paper cup, and a specimen (like a sea shell, an ant or a piece of hair).20170522_150440

  1. Pour the resin into the cup (about ¼ of the cup).
  2. Put the specimen (I used a beetle) into the cup with resin in the middle.20170522_151246
  3. Pour the hardener into the cup and mix, make sure the specimen is in the middle.
  4. Wait for 24 hours and wash your hands.20170523_123508The color depends on a different resin. Mine is light yellow.

Formation of amber: Molecular polymerization, resulting from high pressures and temperatures produced by overlying sediment, transforms the resin first into copal. Sustained heat and pressure drives off terpenes and results in the formation of amber.

For this to happen, the resin must be resistant to decay. Many trees produce resin, but in the majority of cases this deposit is broken down by physical and biological processes. Exposure to sunlight, rain, microorganisms (such as bacteria and fungi), and extreme temperatures tends to disintegrate resin. For resin to survive long enough to become amber, it must be resistant to such forces or be produced under conditions that exclude them.

Mushroom Spores

Mushroom Spores

A mushroom is the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground on soil or on its food source.

The standard for the name “mushroom” is the cultivated white button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus; hence the word “mushroom” is most often applied to those fungi (Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes) that have a stem (stipe), a cap (pileus), and gills (lamellae, sing. lamella) on the underside of the cap. These gills produce microscopic spores that help the fungus spread across the ground or its occupant surface.download

I’ll show you how to see spores without a microscope.

Things you’ll need: A fresh mushroom from a forest (mushrooms from the market wouldn’t work), a cup, and a piece of paper.

  1. Take the cap off the stem of a mushroom (be careful, wear gloves while you’re doing this).
  2. Lay the the cap of the mushroom onto the piece of paper.
  3. Cover the mushroom with the cup on the piece of paper.20170521_091449
  4. Wait for 24 hours.
  5. Take the cup and the mushroom off the paper and observe the paper.

The spores of the mushroom will stick to the paper.

Aviary Photo_131398454278771167
Spores of a mushroom

 

 

 

The Sleeping Grass

The Sleeping Grass

Mimosa pudica (from Latin: pudica “shy, bashful or shrinking”; also called sensitive plant, sleepy plant, Dormilones, sleeping grass, or shy plant) is a creeping annual or perennial herb of the pea family Fabaceae often grown for its curiosity value: the compound leaves fold inward and droop when touched or shaken, defending themselves from harm, and re-open a few minutes later. The species is native to South America and Central America, but is now a pantropical weed. It can also be found in Asia in countries such as Bangladesh, Thailand, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, and Japan. It grows mostly in undisturbed shady areas, under trees or shrubs.Mimosa_pudica_-_Kerala_1

The species is known by numerous common names including sensitive plant, humble plant, shameplant, and touch-me-not.

The stem is erect in young plants, but becomes creeping or trailing with age. It can hang very low and become floppy. The stem is slender, branching, and sparsely to densely prickly, growing to a length of 1.5 m (5 ft).

The leaves are bipinnately compound, with one or two pinnae pairs, and 10–26 leaflets per pinna. The petioles are also prickly. Pedunculate (stalked) pale pink or purple flower heads arise from the leaf axils in mid summer with more and more flowers as the plant gets older. The globose to ovoid heads are 8–10 mm in diameter (excluding the stamens). On close examination, it is seen that the floret petals are red in their upper part and the filaments are pink to lavender. The fruit consists of clusters of 2–8 pods from 1–2 cm long each, these being prickly on the margins. The pods break into 2–5 segments and contain pale brown seeds some 2.5 mm long. The flowers are pollinated by the wind and insects. The seeds have hard seed coats which restrict germination.

The roots of Mimosa pudica create carbon disulfide, which prevents certain pathogenic and mycorrhizal fungi from growing within the plant’s rhizosphere. This allows the formation of nodules on the roots of the plant that contain endosymbiotic diazotrophs, which fix atmospheric nitrogen and convert it into a form that is usable by the plant.

Mimosa_Pudica
The movement of Mimosa pudica

 

 

Mimosa pudica is well known for its rapid plant movement. Like a number of other plant species, it undergoes changes in leaf orientation termed “sleep” or nyctinastic movement. The foliage closes during darkness and reopens in light. This was first studied by the French scientist Jean-Jacques d’Ortous de Mairan.

 

The leaflets also close when stimulated in other ways, such as touching, warming, blowing, or shaking. These types of movements have been termed seismonastic movements. The stimulus is transmitted as an action potential from a stimulated leaflet, to the leaflet’s swollen base (pulvinus), and from there to the pulvini of the other leaflets, which run along the length of the leaf’s rachis. The action potential then passes into the petiole, and finally to the large pulvinus at the end of the petiole, where the leaf attaches to the stem. The action potential causes potassium ions to flow out from the vacuoles of cells in the various pulvini. This causes water to flow out from those cells by osmosis through aquaporin channels, making them lose turgor, which is the force that is applied onto the cell wall by water within the cell. Differences in turgidity in different regions of the leaf and stem results in the closing of the leaflets and the collapse of the leaf petiole.

It is not known exactly why Mimosa pudica evolved this trait, but many scientists think that the plant uses its ability to shrink as a defense from herbivores. Animals may be afraid of a fast moving plant and would rather eat a less active one. Another possible explanation is that the sudden movement dislodges harmful insects.

Gallery:20170518_163311

20170518_163401

20170518_164256

See also: Codariocalyx motorius (Telegraph plant)

Credits: Wikipedia the free encyclopedia.

 

My Optical Illusions

My Optical Illusions

Here are some of my optical illusions that I made myself.

1. The Cubes:20170409_160250

How many cubes are in this picture? It depends on how you look at the picture.

2. The Four Sides:

Screen Shot 2560-04-09 at 4.29.55 PM

Can you spot the four sides of the figure in the picture? (Clue think about an opened book)

3. The Secret Stairs:20170409_160202

Can you find the upside-down stairs in the picture?

  1. On the cubes illusion, there are 13 cubes total.
  2. On 2. think of a jacket and the pages of a book.
  3. On the stairs illusion, the stairs will be upside down.

Optical illusions are caused by a mismatch of what the eyes see and what the brain interprets, according to ABC News. The brain is often tricked into thinking something is moving when contrasting colors are placed in close proximity to each other and repeated. This is why when people want a pattern to move like an optical illusion, the shapes of the pattern are outlined in black and white. The term optical illusion is not the best way to describe this phenomenon, according to ABC News. It is best to call them visual illusions because the illusion is caused by more than just the eyes. It is caused by the primary visual cortex, which is the area of the brain that helps to process visual information.

350px-Revolving_circles.svg
This is my favorite optical illusion. If you move your head back and forth, you can see the circles spin.

The Browning Reaction of Apples

We’ve all been there; you leave a few apple slices out too long or take too long to eat your way around an apple, and you’re confronted with an unpleasant sight. Your once crispy, juicy white apple has turned a dismal shade of brown. I’ll show what causes it and how to stop it from turning brown.

Things you’ll need: An apple, a knife, salt water, vinegar, tap water, and 3 cups.

  1. Cut the apple into four pieces.
  2. Dip the pieces of the apples into salt water, vinegar, tap water, and leave the last piece by itself.
  3. Wait five minutes.
  4. The apple that has been dipped in the vinegar should be the brownest, the apple in tap water should be the second brownest, the apple that is touching air should be the third brownest, and the saltwater piece should be the least brownest.

    Click on picture to make bigger

When an apple is cut (or bruised), oxygen is introduced into the injured plant tissue. When oxygen is present in cells, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzymes in the chloroplasts rapidly oxidize phenolic compounds naturally present in the apple tissues to o-quinones, colorless precursors to brown-colored secondary products. O-quinones then produce the well documented brown color by reacting to form compounds with amino acids or proteins, or they self-assemble to make polymers.

The phenolic compounds work well in PH 5.8 – 6.8 and that why the piece of apple that has vinegar is the brownest and browner than tap water.

The way to stop turning it brown is by putting salt water or sugar on it.

A Water Pressure Experiment

Water Pressure Experiment

This experiment is good to demonstrate water pressure.

Things you’ll need: a water bottle with water, modeling clay, two straws, and scissors.

20170405_134809

  1. Use the scissors to cut one straw to be shorter than the other.
  2. Use the modeling clay to hold the straws together as shown in the picture.20170405_135023
  3. Place the straw and the modeling clay on the bottle as shown in the picture. (Warning: don’t let one of the straws touch the water and don’t let any air come out from the bottle). Seal the clay tightly and close all the holes.20170405_135207
  4. Blow the straw that didn’t touch the water and the water will come out from the other straw.

    Click on image to get bigger

Water pressure is a measure of the force that gets the water through our mains and into your pipes. It is measured in ‘bars’ – one bar is the force needed to raise water to a height of 10 meters. 0.1 bar equivalent to approximately 1.45 pa of pressure. With low-pressure water systems, you’ll want to measure your water pressure precisely to find a tap or shower that will give you optimum flow.

20170405_135450 copy The red arrows are water pressure.

The Floating Needle

What will happen if you put a needle in a cup of water? It would sink. But you can do it if you use density.

Things you’ll need: a needle, a sharp pencil, A strip of paper that is a little bigger than the needle, a cup, and water.

20170328_112826

  1. Fill water into the cup
  2. Put the piece of paper on the water.20170328_112911
  3. Put a needle on the piece of paper.20170328_112925
  4. Use the sharp point of the pencil to push the paper down to make it sink.20170328_112956
  5. Now, you should have a floating needle.

    Click on picture to make it bigger

A material’s density is defined as its mass per unit volume. It is, essentially, a measurement of how tightly matter is crammed together. The principle of density was discovered by the Greek scientist Archimedes. To calculate the density (usually represented by the Greek letter “ρ”) of an object, take the mass (m) and divide by the volume (v): ρ = m / v

The density of water is about 1 gram per cubic centimeter (62 lb/cu ft): this relationship was originally used to define the gram. The density varies with temperature, but not linearly: as the temperature increases, the density rises to a peak at 3.98 °C (39.16 °F) and then decrease. This unusual negative thermal expansion below 4 °C (39 °F) is also observed in molten silica. Regular, hexagonal ice is also less dense than liquid water—upon freezing, the density of water decreases by about 9%.

Amazing Paper Planes

Amazing Paper Planes

Tried of the same old paper airplane designs? Try these two unusual ones.

1. Straw Plane

Things you’ll need: one strip of paper 1.5 cm x 9 cm long, one strip of paper 2 cm x 12 cm, plastic straw (21cm), and tape

1. Make a loop out of each strip of paper, overlapping the ends and taping them inside and outside the loop. The overlapped ends will form a pocket into which you can slip the straw.

2. Put one loop on each end of the straw by slipping the straw through the pockets you’ve made.

3. Done!20170313_212935

Paper airplanes – even the odd looking one you’ve just made – fly using the same principles as real airplanes. When they’re moving, the shape and angle of their wings cause the air to move faster over the wing than under it. This reduces the pressure of the air above the wing, increases the pressure underneath the wing, and the plane is held up by the difference.

A real airplane must race down the runway to get the air moving fast enough past the wings to create enough difference in air pressure to lift it, and then must stay above minimum speed while in the air.

2. Heli-paper

Can you make a helicopter out of paper? Hard? Then try this simple one.

Things you’ll need: a piece of paper 25cm x 5cm, scissors, and a paper clip20170315_183314

  1. Draw the pattern on the piece of paper as shown above. Cut along the solid lines and then fold on the dotted lines.
  2. Fold A forward and B backward.
  3. Fold C in and overlap it with D.
  4. When D and C are folded, fold upward E.
  5. Holding it with E towards the ground, lift your heli-paper above your head and drop it.
  6. Try launching it from as high a place a possible.
  7. Put a paper clip over the folded part at E. Then see if it changes the flight pattern.    20170315_184559      

The Moebius Strip

The Moebius Strip

You’ve probably heard the expression, “There are two sides to everything”. But are there? You can find out by making this strip.

Things you’ll need: several strips of paper 25cm long and 2cm wide, scissors, a pen, and tape.

1. To make the Moebius strip, you need to half-twist the strip of paper and tape the ends together. Now you have the Moebius strip.20170313_194322

2. Make some more Mobius strips. Then, cut one-half in the middle of the Moebius Strip with scissors as shown below. Oops! What happened?20170313_194322 copy

3. Now cut a new strip one-third (1/3) just like the picture above but cut it 1/3.

The Möbius strip, Möbius band, Mobius or Moebius, is a surface with only one side and only one boundary. The Möbius strip has the mathematical property of being non-orientable. It can be realized as a ruled surface. It was discovered independently by the German mathematicians August Ferdinand Möbius and Johann Benedict Listing in 1858.

An example of a Möbius strip can be created by taking a paper strip and giving it a half-twist and then joining the ends of the strip to form a loop. However, the Möbius strip is not a surface of only one exact size and shape, such as the half-twisted paper strip depicted in the illustration. Rather, mathematicians refer to the closed Möbius band as any surface that is homeomorphic to this strip. Its boundary is a simple closed curve, i.e., homeomorphic to a circle. This allows for a very wide variety of geometric versions of the Möbius band as surfaces each having a definite size and shape. For example, any rectangle can be glued to itself (by identifying one edge with the opposite edge after a reversal of orientation) to make a Möbius band. Some of these can be smoothly modeled in Euclidean space, and others cannot.

On 2. the Mobius strip will turn into a normal paper strip. On 3. the strip will turn into 2 paper bands!

How to Make a Periscope

In 1854 Hippolyte Marié-Davy invented the first naval periscope, consisting of a vertical tube with two small mirrors fixed at each end at 45°. Simon Lake used periscopes in his submarines in 1902. A periscope works by using two mirrors to bounce light from one place to another. A typical periscope uses two mirrors at 45-degree angles to the direction one desires to see. The light bounces from one to the other and then out to the person’s eye. Now I will show you how to make one.

Things you’ll need:

Cardboard paper, two small mirrors, glue, a pen, a ruler, scissors, and tape  (tape not included in photo).

20170312_101803

  1. Use a pen and a ruler to draw the periscope’s body. 20170312_102444
  2. Cut it with scissors as shown in the picture.20170312_103259
  3. Put glue behind the mirrors.20170312_103325
  4. Glue the mirrors on to the square as shown in the picture.20170312_103431
  5. 5. Fold it.20170312_103551
  6. Secure the box with tape and it will be finished.  20170312_103734
  7. How to use it: If you look in one of the mirrors, you can see the jar in the other mirror as shown in the picture.20170312_104031Light always bounces off a mirror at the same angle at which it hits. If it hits the mirror at 45 degrees, it will reflect at 45 degrees, enabling it to make the 90 degrees turn around the corner. You can test this by shining a flashlight into the hole where you would look. If your mirrors are correctly angled, the light will shine out the other hole. Similarly, the light reflecting off an object you’re looking at will bounce off each mirror and into your eye.

The Process of Viral Infection

The Process of Viral Infection

I have drawn a diagram of “The Process of Virus Infection” (my diagram is on the bottom). Viruses are cells that infect animals, plants, and bacteria and reproduce only within living cells. Viruses are considered as being either living organism or inert chemicals. The first step of virus infection is attachment. The Host cell has receptors on the cell membrane. In order for the virus to infect the Host cell, the virus needs the right receptors to match the Host cell receptors. Then it enters the host cell if the virus receptors match with the Host cell. Then the capsid of the virus comes apart. Then it transcripts and translates the viral proteins and copies the genome. And then assembles and releases many virions in the process called “Lysis”. A virion is the complete form of a virus when it is outside a Host cell.

This is my diagram of The Process of Virus Infection
This is my diagram of The Process of Virus Infection

The Blue Rose Experiment

The Blue Rose Experiment 

(March 1, 2016)

Introduction:

In this Blue Rose Experiment, I was trying to confirm what other researchers found: that food dye added to water in a vase will cause the rose to change color. My hypothesis was that adding blue food coloring to water into the vase would cause a white rose to turn blue.

Materials:

2 white cut roses (I got the rose from my mother’s garden),

DanPickingRose

  • 2 cups
  • Blue food coloring
  • Water
  • Pure refined sugar

1. Add 250ml of water into the first cup, then add 250ml of water into the second cup and then add 1ml of blue food coloring.

2. Add a pinch of pure refined sugar about .125cc into the two cups and place the stem of the roses into the cup.

3. Wait for 2 or 3 days and record what happened. If the rose in the first cup turns blue that means the sugar makes the rose blue.

Results:                        Control                          |                         Experimental

                Day 1    

                          controlday1                    controlday1    

              Day 2

                    controlday2              testday2

The control is not blue and that means the sugar didn’t make the rose blue. The rose in the blue dye vase turned blue on the second day.

Conclusion: Blue dye caused the white rose to become blue because the dye was absorbed through the stem.

How to Write a Research Report

How to write a research report

This is what I learned about the scientific method:

ScientififMethod

Here are the parts of a research report:

Writingapaper2

We can see that a report has these parts:

1. Summary or Abstract

2. Introduction-We tell about the hypothesis + purpose of the study

3. Materials + Methods-We tell about what we used and what we did

4. Results-We tell the results

5. Discussion-We talk about what we learned

6. Conclusion-We give our conclusion about the study

3D Printer-What It Can Do

 3D Printing

WHAT IS 3D PRINTING? 3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing (AM), refers to various processes used to synthesize a three-dimensional object. In 3D printing, successive layers of material are formed under computer control to create an object. These objects can be of almost any shape or geometry, and are produced from a 3D model or other electronic data source. A 3D printer is a type of industrial robot.

Futurologists such as Jeremy Rifkin believe that 3D printing signals the beginning of a third industrial revolution, succeeding the production line assembly that dominated manufacturing starting in the late 19th century. Using the power of the Internet, it may eventually be possible to send a blueprint of any product to any place in the world to be replicated by a 3D printer with “elemental inks” capable of being combined into any material substance of any desired form.

3D SCANNER vs 3D COPIER A 3D copier is a copier that can copy any solid objects into another one. A 3D scanner is a device that analyzes a real-world object or environment to collect data on its shape and possibly its appearance (e.g. color). The collected data can then be used to construct digital three-dimensional models.

Many different technologies can be used to build these 3D-scanning devices; each technology comes with its own limitations, advantages, and costs. Many limitations in the kind of objects that can be digitized are still present, for example, optical technologies encounter many difficulties with shiny, mirroring or transparent objects. For example, industrial computed tomography scanning can be used to construct digital 3D models, applying non-destructive testing.

HOW DOES 3D PRINTING WORK? It all starts with making a virtual design of the object you want to create. This virtual design is made in a CAD (Computer Aided Design) file using a 3D modeling program (for the creation of a totally new object) or with the use of a 3D scanner (to copy an existing object). A 3D scanner makes a 3D digital copy of an object.

3d scanners use different technologies to generate a 3d model such as time-of-flight, structured / modulated light, volumetric scanning and much more.

Recently, many IT companies like Microsoft and Google enabled their hardware to perform 3d scanning, a great example is Microsoft’s Kinect. This is a clear sign that future hand-held devices like smartphones will have integrated 3d scanners. Digitizing real objects into 3d models will become as easy as taking a picture. Prices of 3d scanners range from very expensive professional industrial devices to 30 USD DIY devices anyone can make at home.

Many things have been printed, such as food, body parts, and skin, hamburgers, guns, a beak for a Falcon, peanut butter, a 1-story house. Maybe you could even print phones, make toys, make computers and make furniture.

Here are some links that give an overview:

 

Some specific things that can be printed, with some videos and my short summaries:

1. 3D printed clothes: 3D printed clothes are sometimes for fashion. Girls like to design their own cloths with 3D printing.I think we should make men’s clothing too.
Make a nice and cool blue suit for men. This video is about a woman design clothes
from a 3D printer.
https://youtu.be/3s94mIhCyt4

 

2. 3D printed body parts: They use ink called “Bio Ink” that can make body parts. They have made: hair, skin, liver, kidney, and lots of more things. And they use these body parts to put or replace the humans’ organs. This video is about 3D printer make live body parts.
https://youtu.be/a1Ikv3yHs0w

3. 3D printed tools: If you don’t have a tool you’ll need to buy it from the store. But you can print your own tools. I think you should combine them, for example, a wrench+screwdriver that will be a great idea. This video is about 3D printed wrenches.
https://youtu.be/WmDz7Q9_h6c

4.3D printed cars: How can they print cars! They print the part and assemble them. This video is about the first printed car.
https://youtu.be/O9odhgH24oA

 

5. 3D printed house: The printer must be huge and I wonder how did they carry it. They use cement as ink and they can make a one-floor house less than one day. This video is about ten houses printed in 24 hours.
https://youtu.be/SObzNdyRTBs

Butterflies

Butterflies

The family of butterflies and moths is called Lepidoptera.

The earliest known butterfly fossils are from the mid Eocene epoch, between 40-50 million years ago. But no one knows which was the first butterfly on earth. The first butterfly onThailand is the Butterfly bush burning sugar (Papilio arcesilaus).

ผีเสื้อป่าสีตาลไหม้
Papilio arcesilaus

The largest butterfly in the world is Queen alexandra’s bird-wing (Ornithoptera alexandrae). Is wide about 280mm when the wing is spanned.

 

ornithoptera_alexandrae_m1
Ornithoptera alexandrae

 

The largest moth in the world is Atlas moth (Attacus atlas). Their wingspans are also amongst the largest, reaching over 25 cm (9.8 in). They live in the South East Asia.
Attacus atlas  2b3034f53972d5291dcb9ff244918663-d6jjmep

The smallest butterfly in the world is the Western Pygmy Blue butterfly (Brephidium exilis or Brephidium exile). It’s about 14 mm and it’s in America.

Unknown

 

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